Teaching Thinking: Past and Present

Taken from Learning to Behave: Curriculum & Whole School Management Approaches to discipline Edited by Neville Jones & Eileen Baglin Jones. (1992) Kogan Page. London

The task is to produce a changed environment for learning - an environment in which there is a new relationship between students and their subject matter, in which knowledge and skill become objects of interrogation, enquiry and extrapolation. As individuals acquire knowledge, they should also be empowered to think and reason. (Glaser, 1984, p.26)


We live in times of rapid social and technological change. In some fields new information becomes obsolete within weeks, days or even hours. Indeed, the knowledge explosion has reached the point where as Toffler (1970) implied, the future arrived yesterday. For many of us, our everyday circumstances change so frequently that we could be forgiven for feeling like Alice in Wonderland who replying to the question, 'Who are you?' con-fessed:

I - I hardly know, sir, at present - at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have changed several times since then. (Lewis Carroll, 1911)

What does this time of change mean for education? Knowledge is accumulating at such a rate that it is impossible to learn every-thing. Moreover, as knowledge is transitory, it is difficult to predict what will be useful for the future or what to select to learn. Therefore, we must teach children how to think and learn i.e. equip them with the basic attitudes, beliefs, skills and resources necessary to tackle fresh problems and acquire new information.
This does not imply that we should teach general thinking and problem solving skills separate to or at the expense of knowledge acquisition. Indeed, the ability to think and reason is context related and knowledge dependent. For instance, one cannot expect pupils to understand and apply the principles of classification without having 'expert' knowledge about the subject matter to be classified. Nevertheless, at the present time, many pupils perceive learning as a series of unrelated and discrete experiences. Skills and procedures with the potential for generalization become contextually welded to the circumstances in which they are learned. It is as though each task is treated as an entirely novel experience rather than one that builds on previous learning. What ought to be a continuous learning process can become an erratic and episodic experience with pupils being unable to make links between past and present learning, either within or between subject disciplines.
Teaching how to learn needs to be an integral part of the whole curriculum with both pupils and teachers appreciating interrelationships between content and process issues across subjects. Given the knowledge explosion we are facing, it does seem essential that curriculum planners should make greater efforts to select and organize what to teach so that factual and procedural knowledge acquired in one subject supports learning and development in other subjects.
Interestingly, this problem has been recognized for some years in the vocational training field where much time and energy has been spent on researching ways of training for transfer i.e. training in such a way that skills and ideas acquired in one context are readily applied to a range of new contexts. A major study by Wolf (1990) has highlighted that transfer can be enhanced by giving trainees many and varied experiences beyond their voca-tional area and using whole complex tasks (rather than teaching sub-skills remote from real life problems). At the same time, considerable energy has been spent on identifying and teaching core skills i.e. skills and procedural knowledge common to many different jobs and contexts. This rests on the theory that if these basic generic skills can be taught, young adults will become more flexible and adaptable learners able to acquire new skills and fresh knowledge easily as the need arises.
Recently, the Government has recognized the importance of establishing a more coherent and integrated framework for post 16 academic and vocational qualifications. In response to the Secretary of State for Education, the National Curriculum Council published a discussion document: 'Core Skills 16-19' (Graham, 1990) and a parallel report, 'Common Learning Outcomes: Core Skills in A/AS Levels and NCVQs' was published by The National Council for Vocational Qualifications (Jessup, 1990). Amongst other things, both reports strongly emphasize the importance of identifying, developing and assessing skills associated with communication, personal autonomy and problem solving.
Curiously, the National Curriculum barely addresses these issues. Indeed, it still reflects much of the compartmentalism that
has existed in schools for years. The orders for the core and foundation subjects contain loose statements about selected aspects of declarative and procedural knowledge deemed essential by each of the subject working parties. Within the subjects, areas of knowledge have been grouped into attainment targets and levels of difficulty but there is no coherent integrative plan that maps relationships between content and process issues within and across the various subjects.
Of course, core skills are already addressed haphazardly in schools but it is rare to find these general transferable issues being considered as central to curriculum planning. However, there is a growing interest in a variety of intellectual and/or social skills training programmes that attempt to tackle core skills in a more systematic and comprehensive way. The Somerset Thinking Skills Course (STSC) provides an important example of one of the many approaches currently in use throughout the UK. This chapter will review theoretical and practical issues associated with the development and application of STSC and consider the signifi-cance of the programme for schools today.


You teach science; well and good; I am busy fashioning the tools for its acquisition . . . . (Rousseau, 1762, p.90)

The idea of teaching thinking skills dates back to the time of Socrates and Plato and has been championed by philosophers and educationalists throughout the centuries. There has always been a debate about the merits of directive versus experiential learning, and rote learning versus learning through understanding. Rote learning approaches with their emphasis on instruction and direction do have the advantage of ensuring the acquisition of particular facts and routines. All too often though, such learning lacks understanding, is short term and situation specific. More experiential, facilitative approaches can create the circumstances for deeper understanding but nevertheless require more time, effort and planning to ensure that pupils acquire the intended knowledge, concepts and skills. Nowadays, most teachers recognize the importance of experiential and interactive approa-ches to learning and for many, Socratic dialogue has become the cornerstone of their approach. Nevertheless, sufficient attention is rarely given to the structure and organization of learning. Interactive approaches alone do not lead to better understanding.
Another common debate has centred around what should be taught and in particular, the wider benefits of teaching certain subjects. For example, educationalists have suggested that the study of subjects such as mathematics, logic or Latin can prepare
pupils for other learning tasks. Indeed, during the discussion stages of the National Curriculum the Secretary of State was lobbied on these matters by various subject interest groups. The relevance of Latin has been given fresh significance by 'Lingo', a programme for schools by Spooner (1988) which explores the etymological roots of our language, thereby helping pupils to appreciate the structure and meaning of important words necess-ary for coping with the concepts that are fundamental to progress in learning.
At the beginning of this century, study skills were in vogue. Numerous books and manuals were published providing tips and guidance on issues such as how to pass examinations and methods of memorizing. All too often, advice was too general to be of use and in any case applied too late in the school career when habits and routines were already well established. Much of this advice lacked any theoretical or empirical basis. In spite of this, study skills are still popular, with many of the old ideas revamped, repackaged and passed on as enduring truths (Nisbet and Shucksmith, 1986).
However, serious attempts to teach pupils how to learn have been hampered by deeply entrenched views about the nature of intelligence. For many, the ability to learn has been viewed as an immodifiable expression of a fixed and inherited quantity of intelli-gence. This view has not only been popular in educational circles but also in society at large. Even before children come to school, many have been labelled by their parents as bright or slow. All too often, this labelling process continues throughout the school years and becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Enduring myths about the immutability of intelligence have been perpetuated by the numerous tests that have been designed to measure this hypothetical construct. Although intelligence tests are at best indicators of previous learning they have been regarded by many as being able to indicate potential for learning. Moreover, even though numerous studies have indicated the dramatic influence of educational experience on IQs (Clarke and Clarke, 1976) outmoded notions about the invariant nature of IQs still persist.


Nevertheless, there are grounds for optimism. The limitations of IQs are now being widely recognized and new ways of assessing potential for learning are being explored through the dynamic testing movement (Lidz, 1987). The old Piagetian notion that children will learn when they are ready is now being replaced by a much more active and positive Vygotskian premise that
intellectual development is an outcome of educational experience rather than a necessary prerequisite for it. Increasingly, the significance of social interaction in learning is being recognized by schools with far more emphasis being placed on work undertaken in small groups. Finally, the crucial role of language as a mediator of learning and a regulator of behaviour is highlighted in the National Oracy Project and in the Statutory Orders for the English National Curriculum 5-16.
These developments also coincide with an explosive growth in research on metacognition (an individual's conscious awareness of his own thought processes). Campione, et al. (1982) have demon-strated that young children and older low achievers are far less knowledgeable than adults or high achievers about methods of learning and problem solving. It has been suggested that the key to successful learning may depend upon helping learners to acquire a broader repertoire of cognitive strategies and gain conscious control over them. Of course this in turn depends upon being able to identify and define widely applicable (core) problem solving strategies. This is no easy matter (for a detailed discussion see Blagg, 1990).
Information processing analyses of intelligence have attempted to identify important mental processes underlying numerous intellectual tasks. This has led to many different suggestions about the nature of metacognition with each researcher using his own specialist language and terms of reference. As yet, there is no commonly agreed taxonomy of cognitive skills nor even an agreed list of essential skills. Nevertheless, as Nisbet and Shucksmith (1986) and Blagg (1990) point out, there is broad agreement in the literature on the main domains that need attention. One can distinguish between two broad groups of teachable, cognitive skills referred to in STSC as:

  • cognitive resources (specific lower order skills and tech-niques); and
  • cognitive strategies (co-ordinated sequences of skills and procedures selected for a particular purpose).

Research evidence is accumulating to suggest that both resources and strategies can be taught and there are many positive sugges-tions on ways of ensuring that such skills and procedures transfer to fresh learning contexts (Blagg, 1990).


The Somerset LAPP which began in 1983 involved three elements:
1. A programme of residential and community enabling experiences.
2. The implementation and evaluation of an intellectual skills training programme known as Instrumental Enrichment (Feuerstein, et al., 1980).
3. A series of teacher secondments exploring new ways of adapting and developing aspects of the school curriculum to help lower achieving pupils.

The project was located in Bridgwater and involved fourth and fifth year pupils and their teachers from the four mainstream secondary schools in the town. Extra resources, favourable teach-ing ratios and scale posts were made available in each of the project schools to facilitate the development of the project. Dr Nigel Blagg was appointed as the evaluator of the Instrumental Enrichment (IE) component of LAPP and Mike Baxter co-ordi-nated and evaluated the other elements of the project.
The IE evaluation started at the beginning of 1984 during the second year of the project. By that stage, some of the initial teething problems associated with a rapid implementation had been ironed out and teachers were beginning to come to terms with an unfamiliar, abstract curriculum. The evaluation was extensive, involving both experimental and control groups for both pupils and teachers. Approximately 250 pupils and 30 teachers were tested pre and post on a range of cognitive, behavioural and attitudinal measures. Some of these measures involved existing standardized procedures and others were specially developed for the evaluation (Blagg, 1990). In addition, observational data were gathered throughout the two year study and anecdotal information was gathered via termly diaries kept by teachers and loosely structured interviews with each teacher and a sample of the pupils. The findings and implications of this study have been reported in Blagg (1990).
Towards the end of the first year of the IE evaluation, detailed observations of both pupils and teachers highlighted some of the benefits and drawbacks of IE. Certainly from the teachers' point of view, involvement with IE and the underlying theoretical ideas generated much careful thought and analysis about the nature of teaching and the process of learning. Many teachers began to appreciate basic deficiencies in pupils which they had previously chosen to ignore or had failed to notice. Within the IE programme, basic cognitive skills and issues were exposed, developed and practised. Many of these skills (e.g. the ability to compare and classify; analyse and synthesize; recognize and define tasks with reference to both implicit and explicit information) were seen to be fundamental across the curriculum.
Nevertheless, although pupils became conscious of these kinds of skills whilst managing abstract IE tasks there was little evidence of pupils transferring the processes to other curriculum areas. Perhaps this was not surprising given the problems teachers experienced in providing examples of suitable 'bridging' activities to help pupils apply IE skills to everyday life. In addition, other concerns about IF were beginning to surface. For example, pupils complained that some of the materials were inappropriate to their age and interests and that there was too much repetition creating boredom. In the main, IF tasks called for a serialistic, analytic approach. This was fine for impulsive children who needed to learn to be more reflective but not so good for those pupils who were already over-reflective, perfectionistic and anxious about making mistakes. Moreover, the contextually bare, 'IQ-like' appearance of the IF exercises and the heavily prescriptive nature of the programme meant that it was a fairly inflexible 'bolt-on' curriculum that was difficult to integrate with other subjects.
It was clear that even if the post-test data were to demonstrate unequivocally positive benefits to pupils and teachers, it would be unlikely that the programmes would be disseminated widely once special funding had been withdrawn. The purchase of the pro-gramme was costly; the exercises could not be photocopied so that each year, fresh materials for each pupil would need to be purchased; the abstract and very unfamiliar nature of the mater-ials meant that lengthy training was essential and in any case, this was a condition of purchase and use i.e. it was not enough for one teacher to be trained in a school and then train and support others. Thus, it was estimated that the annual purchase costs and training implications for IF would put the programme outside the scope of most school and LEA budgets.
It was for these and many other reasons that Somerset established a curriculum team in 1985 to develop and pilot materials and training workshops for our own thinking skills course, tailored to meet mainstream secondary school needs. In the early stages of this work it was decided to create activities that would be suitable for pupils from 11 to 16 years throughout the mainstream ability range. Feedback on the materials from both experienced IF teachers and those new to cognitive skills work was very positive. It was heartening to see the kinds of teacher change issues noticeable in the early stages of IF were now being duplicated with our own materials. Pupil reaction to the pro-gramme was also very enthusiastic, especially amongst mixed ability pupils in the first three years of secondary school. So far, a handbook and six modules have been published with a further two modules in preparation.


Aims and objectives
The STSC has been designed with a major goal in mind: to help pupils become more effective learners. There are a number of specific aims underlying this general aim:
1. To enhance self-esteem.
2. To promote positive attitudes and beliefs about being able to learn to learn.
3. To heighten awareness of learning styles and the need to adjust them according to differing demands.
4. To enhance ability to communicate ideas accurately and clearly.
5. To teach basic cognitive resources underpinning problem-solving processes.
6. To develop awareness and control over the use of problem-solving processes.
7. To transform passive recipients of information into active searchers and generators of ideas.
8. To facilitate the ability to transfer and generalize ideas across many different contexts. (Blagg, et al., 1988a)

These specific aims relate to the core skill domains emphasized in Graham (1990) and Jessup (1990) i.e. personal autonomy, commu-nication skills and problem-solving abilities, as Figure 8.1 illus-trates.

Design issues
Many of the factors that influenced STSC design have already been alluded to, including: lessons learned from practical experience with IE; implications of recent theory and research related to teaching for transfer and various curriculum trends emphasizing interactive teaching approaches, problem solving, small group work and oracy.
These different influences persuaded us to:
o include appropriate and sufficient content in pupil activities to make STSC meaningful and relevant;
o produce teacher guidelines with enough detail to allow for distanced learning;
o use a wide range of novel, visually based discussion tasks relatively free from previous failure situations;
o emphasize small group work, enabling pupils to help one another, compare and share ideas, and reflect on skills, procedures and solutions;
o include open-ended tasks allowing for various levels of inter-pretation, multiple solutions and differentiation by outcome;
are exposed and integrated in the STSC modules. For example, the ability to recall past experiences to solve a current problem depends in part upon being able to compare what is similar in the current situation with what has been experienced previously. It may also depend upon being able to organize and categorize events and experiences. These issues are explored in detail in Module 3, Comparative Thinking. Of course, sometimes pupils need to work at a more abstract and sophisticated level. For example, in solving a complex problem, they may need to refer back to a different but analogous situation from which they can extract principles that would be helpful with the current problem. Module 5, Understanding Analogies, unpacks many of the issues involved in understanding and using analogical thinking.
Beyond these important skills, pupils also need to understand a whole range of representational forms (both visual and verbal)
e.g. abbreviations, codes, symbols, conventions and reference systems used in cartoons, pictures, charts, tables, graphs, maps and so on. They also need to appreciate concepts and conventions in time and space to allow for reflection, anticipation, ordering, prioritizing and planning.
The importance of appropriate linguistic skills cannot be over-estimated. At a very simple level pupils need to possess the technical vocabulary to distinguish between objects and events and describe aspects of their experience accurately and clearly. Yet so often, low attainers are denied important vocabulary because it is regarded as too difficult for them to understand. All pupils need to gain a full command of language in its many forms, functions and varieties. For these reasons we have designed STSC tasks so that they demand the use of high level oracy skills and provide opportunities to address the oral areas specified by the English National Curriculum Committee:
to persuade: to explain; to instruct; to entertain; to narrate; to speculate; to argue a case; to report; to describe; to find out; to clarify or explore an issue; to solve a problem; to interpret; to summarize; to evaluate; to reflect; to announce; to criticize and respond to criticism. (English for Ages 5~16, DES (1989) para. 15.17)

Structure and organization of STSC
STSC involves a series of visually based tasks organized into modular themes and arranged as a spiralling linear model. As Figure 8.4 shows, the entire course involves eight modules. The first four modules are concerned with helping pupils to make connections between disparate aspects of their experience in the 'here and now'. Modules 5 and 6 help pupils to make predictions
and go beyond their present circumstances by appreciating many of the subtle patterns and relationships that pervade our everyday lives. Module 7 is a summative module that applies the skills, strategies and principles established throughout the course to complex, everyday problems. Module 8 (Organizing and Memor-izing) is intended as a supplementary unit that can be used at any stage during the course.
Within the eight modules, each pupil activity is intended to focus on particular learning style and resource issues. However, beyond this each pupil task is in itself a problem solving activity which requires that pupils register a problem exists, carefully define it for themselves, generate and test their own plans and so on. The teacher's role is that of sensitive mediator, providing minimal prompts as necessary in order to ensure that pupils maintain maximum responsibility for dealing with each task.
In tune with the literature on teaching for transfer, each module contains a range of problem solving tasks presented in different modes and styles and drawn from various content areas. The STSC activities can be divided into three overlapping task types:
o stimulus activities;
o artificial tasks; and
o naturalistic tasks.
Stimulus activities are small group discussion tasks which establish a meaningful context and theme as a backcloth to the rest of the activities in each module. They broaden pupil learning by offering numerous opportunities to explore connections and associations between different areas of experience. These tasks are quite complex and involve open-ended activities that foster and encour-age imaginative and divergent interpretations which need to be justified by reference to the information provided. Figure 8.5 provides an example of a stimulus task taken from Module 1 (Foundations for Problem Solving).
Artificial tasks are contextually restricted activities that expose, teach and practise particular cognitive resources. Some of the tasks are 'closed' and require a very focused serialistic approach to find one particular solution, whereas others are more 'open-ended' and ambiguous with many alternative interpretations and solutions. Figure 8.6 provides an example of a relatively closed artificial task taken from the fourth module, Positions in Time and Space.
Naturalistic tasks involve problem-solving activities that relate to everyday life, enabling teachers to check for literal and figural transfer of resources exposed and practised on the artificial and stimulus tasks. Naturalistic tasks provide opportunities for the teacher to identify and assist those:
o pupils who demonstrate a knowledge of numerous cognitive resources but remain unable to select and deploy them in appropriate problem-solving contexts;
o pupils who experience strategic difficulties because they still have major gaps in their cognitive resources.
An example of a naturalistic task is given in Figure 8.7. The eight modules can be summarized as follows:
1. Foundations for Problem Solving (Blagg et al., 1988a) represents the course in 'miniature' and establishes the aims, format and conventions for STSC. It includes activities that touch upon many of the resource and strategic issues elaborated on in later parts of the course. The module concentrates especially on the early stages of problem solving i.e. pro-cedures and skills essential to gathering and organizing relevant information and recognizing and defining problems. For instance, pupils learn to scan and focus; distinguish between explicit and implicit information; use systematic search strategies; describe and label essential features. 2. Analysing and Synthesising (Blagg et al, 1988b) - focuses more specifically on the nature of analysis and synthesis in everyday life. Pupil activities consider part - whole relationships in both structures and operations and link understanding in this area to different forms of instructions, error analysis and design issues. The final stages of the module lead on to an appreciation of the interrelationships between structure, function and aesthetics, finishing on a complex mastery task in which pupils apply their numerous analytic skills to an evaluative exercise related to the humaities.
3. Comparative Thinking (Blagg et al., 1988c) - distinguishes between describing and comparing before developing the nature, meaning and purpose of comparison. It explores the importance of comparative behaviour in all kinds of decision making (e.g. selecting the most economic buys in a super-market, choosing a holiday within various constraints, etc.). The later stages of the module demonstrate how comparison forms the basis of classification before going on to explore the nature and purpose of classification in everyday life.
4. Positions in Time and Space (Blagg, et al., 1988d) - heightens pupil awareness of temporal and spatial considerations at the heart of planning and anticipating. The module exposes and integrates key concepts and vocabulary relating to reference points in time and space. Analytic behaviour is now enhanced with specific spatial labelling systems and given a past-present future dimension. The later stages of the module broaden the activities beyond physical issues into 'mental' issues. In particular, the module considers how different people come to adopt very different 'mental posi-tions' or viewpoints. This involves exploring the nature of empathy and prejudice.
5. Understanding Analogies (Blagg, et al., 1989) - explores the nature of symbolism and analogy in everyday life. The module considers comparative principles involved in under-standing many transformations and relationships (pictorial, figural and cartoon). The module shows how transforma-tions can form the basis of understanding different kinds of analogies and how analogy, metaphor and simile are related.
6. Patterns in Time and Space, (Blagg et al., 1990) - builds on Modules 4 and 5 (Positions in Time and Space and Understanding Analogies). It explores the kinds of predictions one can make from understanding temporal and spatial patterns and analogies. It includes tasks that involve an appreciation of: the relationships between time, distance and speed; complex planning and time management. 7. Organising and Memorising (Blagg et al., 1991) - links with many of the ideas and resources emphasized through-
out the course, with an explicit focus on techniques and strategies to facilitate recalling, organizing and memorizing different types of information. The module (supplementary to the rest of STSC) emphasizes flexible strategic thinking through tasks that prompt pupils to consider which types of organizing and memorizing techniques and resources should be used for different purposes.


Concluding Comments

In many ways STSC was published ahead of its time. The early modules pre-date the National Curriculum and the recent debate about the need for accreditation of core skills in both academic and vocational qualifications. Many of the issues now being rehearsed in documents published by the National Curriculum Council and the National Council for Vocational Qualifications have already been explored intimately within STSC. Indeed, we have received feedback from many schools throughout the UK who are now creatively using STSC as a means of providing coherence to the National Curriculum, helping pupils to see common process links between the core and foundation subjects.
In a number of schools, STSC has made a profound impact on the whole curriculum. For example, in St Mary's School (Newcas-tle-upon-Tyne), all pupils now participate in the Somerset Think-ing Skills Course. The six modules published so far are infused throughout the curriculum and taught in a planned sequence by different subject specialists. Moreover, the interactive and metacognitive messages involved in STSC have led to the adop-tion of many additional, exciting initiatives in science, math-ematics, English and the humanities. Early, in-house evaluations of this approach point to exciting benefits to both pupils and teachers.
Delivery of the National Curriculum requires teachers to be confident with interactive teaching styles and able both to assess and sensitively facilitate children's development across many different areas of learning. User testimonials from schools suggest that STSC has made a contribution here as the following quotes indicate:
STSC is for us primarily a diagnostic tool that has highlighted problems that we should have been aware of ten years ago. . .
The course (STSC) has helped to move staff away from their chalk and talk approach.
I never realized how important is was to ask the right questions. Sometimes I kick myself because I know I've lost the pupils for ten minutes by asking the wrong question.
We know of many studies exploring the effects of STSC on both pupils and teachers. A study by Lake (1988) compared the effects of using Lipman's Philosophy for Children Programme with the first STSC module given under two conditions to mixed ability 10-12 year olds. The pupils (from one class) were randomly assigned to three groups and independently assessed at the beginning of the study and three months later on a factor analysed classroom observation scale (known as the GHOST scale). In one group, STSC was used to develop pupil knowledge of problem solving processes with an emphasis on discussion, oracy and small group work. The second STSC group used the materials as independent problem solving tasks with relatively little mediation, discussion and reflection. The third group received Lipman's programme. Put simply, the Lipman group showed a significant improvement in competence with routine classroom tasks whereas the discussion-oriented STSC group showed a significant improvement on the ability to deal with complex tasks and the management of their own learning. The STSC group that worked independently and received no media-tion did not show any significant changes.
Recently, Ballinger (in preparation) completed a replication of one aspect of Blagg's (1990) IE evaluation, exploring the effects of STSC on teacher attitudinal change in two secondary schools. In common with IE, STSC was found to have a profound and positive impact on teacher attitudes both towards themselves as teachers and towards the potential of low achieving adolescents.
Teachers involved in STSC look beyond their own subject disciplines and become more conscious of promoting pupil under-standing of links between different aspects of their schooling experience. Many STSC teachers begin to take on responsibility for developing intellectual skills in pupils as well as fostering academic achievement. Those that take this responsibility ser-iously now recognize that many pupils who appear 'less able' can be helped to go well beyond projected academic expectations.

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Blagg, NR and Ballinger, MP (1990) thinking to Learn, Learning to Think, London: Routledge.
Blagg, NR, Ballinger, MP, Gardner, RJ, Petty, M and Williams, G (1995) Foundations for Problem Solving, revised edn, Nigel Blagg Associates. Taunton. Somerset.
Blagg, NR, Ballinger, MP, Gardner, RJ, Petty, M and Williams, G (1988b) Analysing and Synthesising, Nigel Blagg Associates. Taunton. Somerset.
Blagg, NR, Ballinger, MP, Gardner, RJ and Petty, M (1988c) Comparative Thinking, Nigel Blagg Associates. Taunton. Somerset.
Blagg, NR, Ballinger, MP, Gardner, RJ and Petty, M (1988d) Positions in Time and Space, Nigel Blagg Associates. Taunton. Somerset.
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